Skip to main content

Full text of "Concrete grandstands : concrete for permanence."

See other formats


/2 Z/-g 



CONCRETE 



DSTANDS 



PORTLAND CEMENT ASSOCIATION 



JUL 8 1941 



CONCRETE 
GRANDSTANDS 



Concrete for Permanence 



Published by 

PORTLAND CEMENT ASSOCIATION 

33 West Grand Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



INTRODUCTION 



Page 
5 



COST 



FINANCING 



THE PROJECT 8 

Size 8 

Shape 8 

Location 9 

Faeilities 9 



DESIGN DETAILS . 

Orientation of Athletic Fields 
Sight Lines .... 
Treads and Risers . 
Seats and Seat Supports 

Aisles 

Entrances and Exits 
Stairways and Ramps . 
Walls and Railings . 
Fences and Entrances 
Illumination for Night Play 



FACILITIES 

Dressing and Locker Rooms .... 

Dugouts 

Public Facilities 

Concessions 

Ticket Booths 

Offices and Storage 

Press and Broadcasting Accommodations 
Public Address System .... 



STRUCTURAL DETAILS 
Loads .... 

Framing 

Expansion Joints . 
Construction Joints 



10 
10 
10 
13 
13 
15 
16 
17 
18 
18 
19 

20 
20 
21 
22 
22 
22 
22 
22 
23 



24 
24 
24 
25 

27 



Watertight Decks 27 

Structures on Embankment 28 

Roofs • 29 



CONSTRUCTION . 

Quality Concrete 
Finish . 



30 
30 
32 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



32 




Spence Vir Photos 



Olympic Stadium, Los Angeles, Calif. 
The bowl shape has been used for a 
number of the larger stadiums. John 
and Donald B. Parkin-«m. architects. 



kan--a> I Diversity . Lawrence, Kan. The 
horseshoe shape structure has also 
been popular for the large stadium. 
Clemenl C. Williams and L. II. Dodd, 
engineers. 



INTRODUCTION 



No longer is a modern permanent grandstand a luxury 
to be enjoyed only b\ the large university or large 
municipality. Today it is a necessary part of the athletic 
plant of every college and high school. Sports are defi- 
nitely recognized as an essential part of the educational 
curriculum, and sports always rightly command an 
audience. 

A grandstand also aids in the development of civic 
interest. Here the students, alumni, parents, friends and 
ch ic leaders can gather and enj<>> a feeling of participa- 
tion in the accomplishments of the local teams. Here 
friendly rivalry can been jo\ed by all. When tin 1 held and 
stands are not in use for school purposes, the municipal- 
ity has available an outdoor recreation center for pag- 
eants and civic celebrations. Here honors can be prop- 
erly paid to visiting dignitaries among favorable sur- 
roundings. \n adequate place is provided tor festivals 
and concerts to the delight of the entire community. 
V. center of community interest is established. \ grand- 
stand is an essential assel for ever} community an out- 
standing American institution. 

I sually the structural design of grandstands is not a 
difficult problem for the engineer. However, proper de- 
tails are important. \ large part of this booklet is de- 
voted to the exposition of features which have been 
found to gi\e the best results under working conditions. 
Also discussed are (■(►st. financing, size, shape, location 
and facilities. Consideration is given to the requirements 
of both the performer and the patron. 

The materia] in this booklet is intended primarily to 
c< »\ er small and medium size grandstands for schools and 
municipalities where the principal athletic events will 



be football or baseball. However, much of the material 
is applicable to grandstands of an> size used for an> 
purpose. 

Attractive Grandstands 
With Minimum Maintenance 

( handstands are continuously exposed to weather, the 

destructive forces of wetting and drying, freezing and 

thawing. It is desirable that the\ be so built that little 

maintenance will be required to keep them shipshape 

even under these severe conditions. The> must, of 
course, be safe against damage or collapse w hen subject 

to the uncontrollable shocks caused by crowds of excited 

spectators. The> should also be fire-resistant. 

Concrete is. therefore, most often chosen for grand- 
stands because it is relatively low in first cost, has the 
ability to withstand weathering with the minimum <>l 
maintenance, is firesafe, and has a tee mem Ions reserve « > i 
strength. Beaut \ ma> be combined w ith its utilil \ . since 
concrete lends itself no readily to architectural treat- 
ment. Improvements in form construction and in the 
methods of making, placing and finishing concrete ha\ e 
transformed it from a Structural material onl> to one 
that is being used both structurally and architecturally . 
The illustrations in this book show only a lew examples 
of its possibilities as an architectural medium. Outside 
walls may be made as elaborate or simple as desired. En- 
trances may be featured with appropriate details, and 
concrete enclosure fences of suitable design to h union i/e 
with the main structure may be added in complete the 
project. 



*4. I 



II 



~^- 




COST 



One of the first subjects which come up for discussion 
in connection with the construction of permanent grand- 
stands is their cost. The cost of the complete project is 
affected by a multitude of items including: condition of 
site — necessary grading, draining, conditioning of play- 
ing field, access drives and walks, fences, public utili- 
ties and foundation conditions: size and shape of grand- 



stand; facilities provided — team rooms, public rest 
rooms, offices and concessions; architectural treatment; 
and local cost of materials and labor. For this reason, 
general figures on cost can have little value. However, as 
a rough approximation the cost of the seats and sup- 
porting structure only may be estimated at about $6 to 
SlOa seat. 




na^ pole* attached to outs.de of «alls and l.ght poles supported on rear of structure. Leon B. Senter, architect! 



FINANCING 



W here there is need for a grandstand, the financing of 
the project should not be difficult. The size and cost of the 
structure may be suited to the local requirements so that 
admission charges will make it self-sustaining and self- 
liquidating where desired. In some cases, of course. 



grandstands are desired where no income will he avail- 
able from entrance i< < g. These are usualh the \ ei \ small 
stands at public playgrounds, swimming pools or similar 
locations, and their construction is paid for from gen- 
eral funds, or recreation or park appropriations. 



Man) methods of financing ha\e been used. A large 
part of the public as irell as man) educators are of the 
opinion that athletics are now such an essential part of 
a well rounded curriculum that provision for athletic 
structures, including a grandstand as an integral part «>(' 
the Bchool plant, is justifiable. In such cases the grand- 
stand is buill vviih funds appropriated bj the school 
board or the municipality. On the other hand i1 ma> be 
necessary to finance the project b> public subscription, 
b) the sale of securities and l>> hank loans, or bj a com- 
bination of these methods. V\ here public pari icipal ion is 
necessary to raise all or a pari of t he funds, it i> essenl ial 
thai a well developed campaign be carried on h> influ- 
ential people and enthusiasts for I hi' project. 

The first Btep in a campaign is the organization of a 
promotion committee. \ small group of alumni, school 
officials and other citizens ma) prevail upon the civic 
organizations to appoint representatives to such a com- 
mittee. I he committee roav. incorporate an association 
as ;i nonprofit organization with the power to lease 
land, lo contract for the construction <»l t In- grandstand 
and to finance the project. Working capital ma} be 
raised h> donations From a few individuals <>r l>\ 1 1 «• ■ 
advance sale of season tickets. In some cases working 
capita] has been provided l»> the athletic association 
where such funds have been previously built up. 

The committee must siml> the requirements <>i the 
situation t<» determine the size of the project. \n engi- 
neer or architect is employed t<> prepare preliminary 

plans and sketches for estimating I he COSl and for USC 

in campaign publicit ) 

In one citv, of 25,000 population a local organization 
called the stadium corporation was incorporated under 
state law with the management in the hands of a stadium 
commission composed of 1 1 members v\ it h tun members 
representing rath of the active <i\ie organizations, the 
chamber of commerce, Kiwanis, Lions and lb>iar\ 
clubs, and three representing the board of education. 
The board of education granted i<> the corporation a 
99-year lease h>i the ground. The corporation built 
and is operat ing t he grandstand. 

Kb a means oi securing working capital about $5,000 
was raised b> selling season tickets in advance, these 
were sold b\ members of the organizations represented 
on the commission. Bonds for the construction were 
thm issued and sold locally. One-half of all admission 
receipts is credited to an athletic fund to cover current 
expenses of the teams and other running expenses. I at 
other half is credited to the corporation and is used to 
pa> interest, to retire bonds and to cover incidental 
expenses. When all bonds are retired the lease will be 
surrendered to the board of .duration and the stadium 
w itt become its property . 

\ well organized campaign fa i) be 

conducted b> dividing the workers into teams, each 
under the leadership of a captain who is a memb 
the committee or who is selected for his executive ahflit) 
and influence in the community. Each nam ma> h 




T---T---T--- 




\ large portion of the eoet ol the stadium o1 Mooreheort, 

III., v*.i^ raised bj ilmi.ii equal lo I he estimated eool 

• i I Itrtm /♦ - ii.i inr | »l. i l« M M • I < Ml 111 tl • I < ' • 

• nen t re* oed <»t i be suhw ri 



allotted .i given quota and prizes awarded t<>i th< h im 
reaching its goal first o\ raising the largest tol J amount 
\ suall) prizes ari donated b) business people foi th. 

I hi alumni should be made 
available t<»i >oh. it . J business |»- opl< i 

interested in local improvements i an be d< pend< d upon 
to boosl the projei i and h«-lp finan< iall\ i w u < 
zations will take in active pari b> furnishing workers 
to solicil i heii i »vn n membei »hip and ol h 

Publk it \ i- in impoi I. nit 
i aise fundi rhe i ommil in- should 1»m>i on»- 

representative who is experienced in this In-ld i • ► take 
charge. Newspapers will cixiperaU 1 on *u< h projei i 
their publicity ma\ Im- supplemented b) attract 

d direi i mail pie< t»s I h 
be prepared b\ shideni r* tit peu 

thihi- 
1 -iiinl i helpful in 

raising funds i»i>l in pnhlirit > . Surh i 

whirled : 

pal ing in the i ampe - 



THE PROJECT 



Size 

If the grandstand is to be built in connection with a 
school, the number of students, faculty, alumni and 
local townspeople should be considered. The popularity 
of the school, its athletic relations with other schools and 
the proximiU to other towns and cities will influence 
the size. For community projects, careful consideration 
must he given to the 1 (hawing power of the events in- 
tended to he held. 

Funds available ma) determine the size of a erand- 



but these would appear to be special cases rather than 
representative of the average. 

Shape 

Many factors will affect the general shape of the 
structure. A straight or slightly curved stand is suitable 
for football, track and general entertainments. For large 
seating capacities, two such stands can be erected on 
opposite sides of the playing field and where necessary, 
curved sections connecting the side stands can be added 




Chelaea, Man., this simple concrete itand araa built opposite a larger concrete grandstand, under which arc the la.-il- 
it.es for playen and spectators. Entrance i- directrj from the field. Fccr & Eiaenberg, architects. 



stand, often where funds are limited, a section of the 

Structure is built a it h a \ iew to e nlar ging it later. Plans 

prepared for the complete projeel are helpful in creating 
interest and raising fund- foi the first section. In some 
■ i structures than necessar) have been built. 
The) <>\i\^r. a waste of funds. Where there is 

considerable uncertain! > as to the proper size foi a given 
project, construction of a grandstand section which i an 
be easil) enlarged has man) advantage 

irve) of high school grandstands built in com- 
munities up to 50,000 population indicates that the 
'■'♦i'" of tie seating i apai it) to the population is larger 
for the smaller < (immunities. In town- of 5,000 popula- 
tion, this ratio ma) be _ | 01 more while in com- 
munities of 50,000, a ratio ol L0 pa cent appears to be 
1 sing tl i the structures 
would have 1,250 seats in it 

other, ts mentioned above, local conditions wiU 

population cn dkm h itd 

seatn 

8 



to one or both ends. Balconies have been used in a fen 
instances to provide the largest possible percentage of 
* at* on the two sides of the playing field. In the case ol 
lout hall, observations of crowds free to choose their own 
seats shon a preponderance of the spectators opposite 
the centerlines and in the lower rows. Some stands in- 
tended primaril) for football have therefore been made 
much deeper al the center than at the ends. Grand- 
stands for baseball are built on two sides ol tie diamond 
with bleacher stands bordering the outfield where m 
sai 5 for added - apai it g . 

I Grandstands for a combination of uses are often de- 
sired. The combination of football and track has proved 
ver) satisfactory but a i ombination of such uses as bs 
ball and football requires a compromise to the disad- 
rant i the other. Baseball grandstands ha 

been used for football b) laying out the field with tl.. 
length neari) parallel to one ndi ol the grandstand. 
Font!,, N grandstands built on one side oi the field have 

a used for baseball b) pla ing the diamond a ith the 
,lf ^ basi Mm. prai ti .IK parahV I fa nAmtanA 



. 




Baseball grandstand at Westfield, Mass. R. l». Boyle, engineer. In small structures such a* thi>, entrance from the lirld 
is satisfactory and economical. 



Location 

Athletic fields should he readily accessible to players 
and spectators. Ample facilities for parking automo- 
biles within easy walking distance of the entrances are 
highly desirable. \t the same time the parking should 
interfere as little as possible with the flow of traffic. 

Facilities 

The facilities to be pro\ ided \\ ill depend on the >i/e of 
the grandstand, the purpose for which it is to be built, the 
proximity to other structures and the funds available. 
While ;i small grandstand ma> consist of no more than 
the act ual seating structure, the larger stadiums include 



mini) special features. Grandstands built adjacent to 
school or other buildings used for athletic events ma> 
aoi require dressing accommodations for the teams if 
such accommodations are available in the buildings, bul 
in other locations suitable dressing, locker and shower 
rooms should be included or provision made for their 
addition as soon as funds are available. Toilet facilities 
for both participants and spectators should always be 
provided unless available in adjacent buildings. On the 
larger projects, the facilities ma> also include ticket 
others and other office space, information, refreshment, 
press and radio booths. Detailed suggestions on facil- 
ities are discussed on page 20. 



ilbany, Ga., has 1 1 ■ i — combination football and baseball 
grandstand ■eating 6,0410 pi-<>pl< . Inn to the hillside loca- 
tion, entrance is from the top. Offices and dressing rooms 
are provided under end se cti o n s. The curved front i* s 
compromise t<» adapl the stand to both baseball and foot- 
ball. Raybnrn v W * - 1 > 1 • , architect; John Lowe, engineer! 




The Foreman Field Stadium at Norfolk. Va., illustrates the eoncentration of seats near the center of action. C. A. Neff, 
architect; C. J, Lindeman. engineer. 



DESIGN DETAILS 



Orientation of Athletic Fields 

\ single misplay ina> mean the loss of an important 
jam. 1 , and such a misplay may be caused by the gh 

.n*- rays in the player's eyes. In planning an ath- 
letic ii«']<l. therefore, one of the first considerations must 
be orientation of the various fields of pla\ with respect 
to direction of the sun's rays. Studies of ideal orienta- 
tion nia> determine the choice of the site for an athletic 
ticld when* more than one site is under consideration 
and such studies are of value in locating the seating 
structures to best advantage. Other considerations may 
make it impossible to obtain ideal orientation but it is 
important to know what the ideal direction would be 
and adopt a layout as clo>e to this as possible. 

The direction ofpla) in football is generally in lines 
parallel to the long axis of the field. The football s- 
i< short, usually ( October and November, and _ 
generally from about 2:00 to IKK) in the afterna 
that ideal orientation of football iields can be accurately 
determined. Main consideration should be for the play- 
tators welcome the sun's rays at this time 

tor baseball, conditio! _ oerally considered most 

ble when the sun's rays are parallel to th«- line 
joining first and third base. Two positions of the dia- 
mond will meet this requirement. Tl 
ball is Ion-, i and warmer than foi football and f< 

ssional leagues at least, the spectal 
more< s ration in selecting the orientation. S| 

generally prefei to sit along the first base line with 
the sun at their be 

M*l een published from which the ideal orien- 



tation of football fields and baseball diamonds in an\ 
part of the United States can be determined easily*. 
These show that for the center of the time zones, the 
short axis of football fields should be at an angle of 
about 50 deg. east of true north. Similarly the line from 
first to third base of baseball diamonds should be at an 
angle of about 72 deg. east of true north for projects 
located near the center of the time zones. Thesr angles 
increase toward the east and south of the center of each 
zone and decrease toward the west and north of tie 
center by a maximum of aboul l\ den. 

Sight Lines 

The principal purpose of a grandstand is to pro\ ide 
the public with a good view of the performance under 
comfortable circumstances. The view is affected both by 
the distance to the action and by any obstruction to the 
sight line. The sight line is the straight line between the 
observer's 1 the object. 

The center of action for football is al the centei of 
the gridiron and that for baseball at tin- center of the 
diamond. In football it is particular!) noticeable that 
with unreserved seats the patrons choose seats as d 
the center of action as possible. Thi- results in tin- out- 
side edge of the crowd forming an approximate arc with 
i on theSO-ycLlinu - ral grandstands have 
been built with the back conforming roughlj to this an 

V| - r t| t lin< - illy considered oolj normal to 

itkm ofl \ti,|. t„ Fields' 1 bj Gavin Hidden \ 
\ 
I n fl ue nc e of Lo i on Engni , . ,.,.;„ Hadden, 

ueering, Deo rti 



the stand, the oblique lines to different parts of the field 
being neglected. Some stands, particularly large bowls, 
have been built with a curved front so that the normal 
line approaches the line to the center of action. The 
additional complexity and cost of design and construc- 
tion of such curved structures is not justified with small 
stands. 

For the best view 7 , there should be no obstruction be- 
tween the spectator's eye and any part of the Geld of 
action. This requires that the sight line to any part of 
the field should be above the spectators in front. It is 
commonly assumed that for a seated spectator the eye 
is 4 ft. above the floor and 6 in. below the top of his hat. 
Naturalh these 1 distances vary considerably with differ- 
ent individuals so that too great refinement in dcter- 



a reasonable height, it seems justifiable to assume that 
spectators will have a satisfactory view if they can look 
over the heads of those in the second row ahead of them. 
This can be done if a value of 3 in. is used for c. 

The focal point is the intersection of the sight line 
with the playing field or other object of interest. For 
football the focal point should be at about the nearest 
line of the playing field. For track, it should be at about 
chest height for a runner in the closest lane. For base- 
ball, it should be the catcher. If these points of interest 
are beyond the focal points for all seats computed on 
basis of c equal to 3 in. the view will be satisfactory, 
particularly since a large part of the action will occur at 
points where the computed value of c will be larger. 

If the focal point for all seats is made the same, a sec- 



Sight line diagrams. Dia- 
gram \ ^u>\\> a <ur\cd scat 
section with common focal 
point. Diagram B shows 

straight scat section with vari- 
able focal points. The eleva- 
tion of front and rear scats and 
the sight line clearance are the 
same for the two diagrams. 







* 


^-* 


• 










* 


1— 




Diagram A 






m t m 












c 
0» 






i . 1 
1 










2 














- - 






d, 










d n 











Diagram B 




mining sight lines is not warranted when the original 
assumptions at best can be only approximate. 

\\ it.h a given focal point and elevation of the first 
seat, the required elevation of the other scats is ma- 
terially affected by the assumed value of c (the clearance 
between successive sight lines). As previously stated, 
for unobstructed \ iew the value of c should be 6 in., the 
assumed distance between eye and top of hat. However, 
except for small grandstands, this will frequently re- 
quire the rear seats to be at an excessively high eleva- 
tion. Manx grandstands, in fact practically all large 
ones, have been built on the basis of a smaller value of c. 
\\ bile this smaller value has generally been dictated by 
the practical consideration of keeping the structure at 



tion through the seat deck will be a curve as shown in 
Diagram A. Diagram \\ shows the sight lines for a 
straight section in which the first and last seats and the 
clearance, c, are the same as in Diagram A. With this 
straight section, the focal point is different for each row 
but the average is approximately the same as the focal 
point for the ideal curved section. In other words, with 
the straight section the lower scats have better \ Ni- 
hility and the upper seats poorer visibility than those 
in the curved section, but the average i- the same. 

Since with a straight section the top seat has the poor- 
est view, it is necessary to check only this seat in order 
to determine that all seats are satisfactory. The relation 
between distance from seat to its focal point, e/, height 



11 



e n = d n Jjg + 5 (Sn-Sol 



of the eye above focal point, e, width of tread, t, height 
of riser, r, and clearance, c, is represented by the simple 

formula - = 

e r—c 

For a curved section the relation of the various factors 
are represented by the formula 

c 

1 

in which e n — elevation above focal point of eye of 
spectator in row n . 
ei = elevation above focal point of eye of 

spectator in row 1. 
d n = distance from focal point to row n. 
di = distance from focal point to row 1. 
c = clearance between successive sight lines. 
/ = width of tread. 
Si and S n = values from table corresponding to 

For simplicity the value of d 1 



VALUES OF S 



7-'f 



should be an exact multiple of /. 

As an example of the use of this formula, assume that 

it is desired to design a grandstand with a common focal 

point but otherwise approximately the same as that 

shown on page 24. Assume the factors: d = 6 ft., d Y = 

32 ft, c=0.25 ft., t=2 ft. Then the formula becomes 

, T 6 0.25 "I 

e n = d n |^- r - (S w -3.3182) 

which can be simplified toe fl = d n (0.125S n -0.2273) for 
these specific conditions. For the last row d n = 78; 

y = 39; from the table, S n =4.2279; and the formula 

gives e n = 23.494 which is the distance above the focal 
point of eye of spectator in the last row. He elevation 
of the tread used by this spectator is then 23.49—4.0 = 
19.49. The elevation of each row is obtained similarly. 




d 

t 


s 


d 

i 


S 


d 
i 


s 


1 


0000 


36 


I 1 168 


71 


4.8328 


9 


1 0000 


37 


1 1710 


72 


I 8169 


3 


1 5000 


38 


1 2016 


73 


1 8608 


4 


1 8333 


39 


1 2279 


71 


1 87 15 


5 


2 0833 


10 


1.2535 


75 


1 8880 


6 


2 2833 


11 


1 2785 


70 


1.9014 


7 


2 fc500 


12 


1 3029 


77 


1 9115 


8 


2 5929 


13 


1.3207 


78 


1 9275 


9 


2.7179 


tl 


4.3500 


79 


1.9103 


10 


2 8290 


15 


1 3727 


80 


1 . 9530 


11 


2.9290 


10 


1 3919 


81 


4.9655 


12 


3 0199 


17 


1 1107 


82 


1 9778 


13 


3.1032 


18 


4.4380 


83 


I 0900 


11 


3.1801 


19 


1 1588 


84 


5.0021 


15 


3 2516 


50 


1 1702 


;::, 


5.0140 


16 


3.3182 


51 


1 1992 


86 


5 0257 


IT 


3 3807 


52 


1 5188 


87 


5.0374 


18 


3 1396 


53 


4 5380 


88 


5 . 189 


19 


3 1951 


51 


1 5569 


89 


5.0602 


20 


3.5477 


55 


1 575 1 


90 


5.0715 


21 


3.5977 


56 


1 5936 


91 


5.0826 


22 


3.6454 


57 


1 0115 


92 


5 0936 


23 


3 . 6908 


58 


1 0290 


93 


5 . 1044 


24 


3.7343 


59 


1 103 


91 


5 1152 


25 


3 7760 


60 


1 6632 


95 


5 1258 


26 


3 8160 


61 


1 0700 


96 


5 1363 


27 


3 85 1 1 


02 


1 6963 


07 


5.1468 


28 


3.8915 


03 


4.7124 


98 


5.1571 


29 


3 9272 


61 


1 7283 


99 


5 1073 


30 


3.9617 


65 


1 7 139 


100 


5.177 1 


31 


3 . 9950 


66 


4 . 7593 


101 


5.1871 


32 


I H272 


67 


1 771 1 


102 


5.1073 


33 


1 0585 


68 


1 780 1 


103 


5.2071 


31 


1 0888 


69 


1 80 11 


lot 


5.2168 


I * 


1.1182 


70 


1 8180 


105 


5 220 1 



♦Modification of formula given by A. B. Randall and E. S. Crawley . 
"The Design of Seating Areas for Visibility", imerican irchi- 

iect, May 21, 1921, Vol. 125, No. 2116, page 187. 

An interesting effect is obtained by the shadows on the 
many planes on the rear of the Waiter Strong Memorial 
Stadium, Beloit College, Beloit, Wis. The seats are con- 
centrated near the center of the field. Ulen & Webster, 
architects; Mogens Ipsen, engineer. 






H i 



J 



i 







The popularity of football is shown in this view of the stadium at Northwestern University, Evanston, 111. Even the tem- 
porary stands at the ends of the field are filled. The crescent shape and balcony concentrate the permanent seats near the 
center of the field. The cross section of the seat deck is curved by using variable riser heights to provide equal sight lines 
fi>r all seats. Original plans call for increasing the capacity of this structure as funds and demands warrant by ulti- 
mately providing two balconies on each side of the field. James G. Rogers, architect; Gavin Hadden, engineer. 



To provide this curved seating section requires that 
each riser be slightly higher than the preceding one. 
Few grandstands have been built to the theoretical curve 
but a number have been constructed with a series of 
straight sections which approximate the theoretical 
curve. This is obtained by increasing the height of riser 
for succeeding groups of 5 to 10 rows rather than for 
each row. This greatly reduces the construction difficul- 
ties involved in the use of variable riser heights. Such 
a plan is recommended for structures containing more 
than about 25 rows of seats and may be used in smaller 
structures. 

Treads and Risers 

The seat treads and risers should be as small as pos- 
sible for tin 1 sake of economy, but must be sufficient 
for comfort and a good view. Increasing the width of 
tread will, of course, increase comfort by providing more 
leg room, but it will also reduce the sight line clearance. 

Most grandstands have a tread of from 2 4 to 30 in. 
A width of 25 or 26 in. gives reasonable comfort and 
economy and is probably most satisfactory for the aver- 
age case. Twenty-four inches should be the minimum 
considered although a very few structures have been 
built with narrower treads. Where cost is not particu- 
larly important, the treads may be as much as 30 in. 
When seats with fixed backs are used the tread should 
be at least 30 in. Where there is much movement of the 
spectators during the program, as at race tracks, the 
treads must be wider than when the spectators remain 
at their seats from the beginning to the end of the 
program, as at football games. More room per seat is 
also generally provided for baseball games than for 
football games. 

The heighl of the riser affects the cost and sight lines. 



Increasing the riser height will increase the total height 
of the structure and consequently its cost. The sight 
lines are controlled by the ratio of riser to tread, the 
sight clearance, and the location of the first seat in rela- 
tion to the assumed focal point. This is shown b> the 
diagrams and discussion on page 11. Ordinarily the height 
of riser is the least fixed of these dimensions and varies 
from 6 to 18 in. However, most of the small stands have 
risers between 9 and 14 in. The elevation of the first 
seat should not be any higher than necessary since extra 
height means extra cost and poorer sight lines. 

The first tread should be wide enough to provide 18 
in. between the front edge of the seat and the wall or 
rail. Additional width is not necessary unless a definite 
cross aisle is required. The distance between the back 
of the last seat and the rear wall need not be more 
than 6 in. 

Seats and Seat Supports 

The space allowed for rath s *»at, lengthwise of the 
row, is generally between 17 and 18J 2 in. The 17-in. 
width should be the absolute minimum and a width 
of 18 in., which is required by many building codes, 
is preferable. Even in the same section, the width of 
seats may be varied slightly to provide for varying 
total length of rows caused by entraneeways, aisles, 
etc. The height from deck to top of seat should be 
approximately 18 in. 

The seats themselves are usually of wood, nominally 
2 in. thick and 8 to 12 in. wide, preferably a minimum 
of 10 in. The width may be made up of one, two or three 
pieces, fastened to supports attached to the deck. Seats 
made up of two or three pieces are recommended since 
they have less tendency to warp than those made of a 
single plank. Although many seats are made level, greater 



13 



* V 

1 







lu ..i 



R 






pit. it and ihouM !•• kiln 

id. 

i 

1 iimI .<|.|.||. .1 U lli.it 



;>opolority o* playground* it mcreoted whenever %mo\\ ineiptnuvt bleochert ore provided 





■ v 










II 



v 




I I. V- 




• •<»»< «*1 







typm&t?, 



Simple masses of concrete with texture produced by form boards distinguish the baseball grandstand at Seattle, Wash. 
William Aitken, architect. 



staining of clothing will not occur. Top edges of seat 
boards should be chamfered or rounded to reduce 
wear and splintering and to give better drainage. (Urn- 
tact areas between wood members should be avoided 
wherever possible to reduce deterioration. 

Various designs of seal supports have been used, some 
attached to the risers and others attached to the treads 
of the seat deck. A few examples of these seat supports 
are illustrated. In making a selection, consideration 
should be given to the ease with which the support can 
be placed in proper position, its interference with clean- 
ing the structure and the opportunity for drainage of 
moisture away from the metal and wood parts to reduce 
deterioration. Supports attached to the riser have advan- 
tages in these respects. On the other hand some of those 
placed on the tread are lower in first cost. To reduce 
breakage of the wood seats, the bracket should give 
practically complete support across the width of the 
seat. Supports are placed at about t-ft. intervals along 
the length of the seats. The ends of planks may meet 
over a support, or two supports about 1 ft. apart may 
be used. Seats should stop or be cut at expansion joints 
with a support used close to each side of the joint, \\ here 
the seat extends less than 1 ft. beyond the joint, the 
plank may be continuous if not rigidly attached to the 



end support. Fastening devices driven from the under- 
side of the seat and extending onl> part vva\ through 
the wood will reduce the deca\ hazard. Through bolts 
are stronger but increase the deca\ hazard due to the 
retention of moisture. 

( irandstands for professional baseball games and horse 
races are generally equipped with individual slat seats 
with backs. These require more space than th* 1 bleacher 
type of scats and the exact requirements will depend 
on the design of the seat. Manufacturers of such seating 
equipment should be consulted for their recommenda- 
tions for the equipment selected. 

Aisles 

Grandstands are generally divided into sections b\ 
transverse aisles. The sections usually have from 21 to 
,V2 scats per row between aisles. The most favored w idth 
appears to be cither 26 or 28 seats. 

Aisles beside the end walls are sometimes advan- 
tageous where the> can be connected directly to an 
entrance but are not essential. The width of one aisle 
can be saved by placing the first aisle one-half section 
from the wall. 

Widths of aisles vary, but the most common width is 




Alternate arrangement of aisles and entrances for 2100-seat 
grandstands shown on page 2t. The solid line at the top shows loca- 
tion of column bents with reference to expansion joints. Note increase 
in aisle width toward exit. The capacity may be increased in the orig- 
inal construction or at a later date by using additional sections. In 



Diagram A, all sections arc the same. In Diagrams B and < ', the renter 
and right hand sections are typical except that instead of the ramp 

for the right hand section in C, temporary steps are used until the 
next section is added. The left hand sections of B and C are modified 

by the use of an extra aisle and special entrance. 



15 







. im.Ui.ukI at Eaat Boston, 1M ■ . ,/. <i l»\ open rontilrvn 

\J.irL I i IK III I i.i I. mp.i.u; Itl.K killl. < l.i|i|i. Willi »« i I ' " L 









' 












. 






• 

























ts 



I 1 1 1 II I 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I t \ 

m tj«lin.il .ii-l Ii ad 
\\ il It ;i mimII nil I. mil 

nkiin iii ran fn quent In l>< rn 

itudinaJ 

1 ■ (f \\ I I I I I Id 
I II I If I 

I ' VS If it II ol \ I 'Mill I I 

H|(| 

\\ idtli i' - .m<l |».»^ 

1 
m.ii* Mil 






The location of vomitories will depend upon the con- 
tour of the site and the >\/r of the section Ben ed. Where 
the section served is relatively small, the vomitory can 
be at the same level as (lie entrance, thus avoiding ramps 

or stairs. For larger sections it is advisable to place the 
vomitory pari v\a> up thr stand so thai it v\ ill be served 
h> an aisle bekwt as \\«'ll as the aisle above. In the very 
large stadiums, a second row oi* vomitories is provided 

to serve the Upper sections of the stand. 

Stairways and Ramps 

\ arious studies hav e been made of i hr rate of egress 

from stairways and ramps. Some of these indicate aver- 

yalues <>l aboul 30 persons per minute per traffic 

lane of 22-in. width for Btairways and aboul 37 for 

ramps. Some authorities give higher values, in some 








. J — F== 










Vrruiiyriiirn I of BieleS • « I vuniitoin - \ l< llOllId I" II 

i ,,,_, ,i not on! - I- h indli the i rowda eflli ■• nil) but to fit thi 
location of th< expansion joints *hown I louble linet 

Withthi imingeiufntM of expuntu hown the walla around 
ill.- vomitoi u i i'«l on lh< deck ind ■ t ■ - i imp i 01 tain 
are self uipportinfl and fn i from n nu I< < ol the itnn lure 



i ases assuming a rate of egress "I 15 persons per minute 
per traffic lane for both stairways .md ramps ' m this 
basis, and assuming thai it is desired to exit the i ntire 
crowd in 5 minutes, a grandstand seating 10,000 p 
will require a total of 15 lane widths of exh ramps, vomi 
tones, stairways or gates directly from the seat deck 
Thia total width must be maintained all th»- wa> to th« 
outside of i be grandstand and enclosu] 

[n designing stairways, certain rub lei) \i^**\ 

These require that the sum ol risei beight and tread 
width, in inches, shall not be less than IT'j noi more 
than 18; thai the Bum of - risers and I tread, in in< bes 
shall not be less than -I nor more than 25; th.tt the 
produ< » of i isei ind 1 1 ead, in im bes, shall hdl \>> 
70 ,md 75 Ri» ri of 6] _• to T 1 _. in. with 1 1 •-.■*!- ol I l to 
In in. are most common!) used and conform to these 
rules. 

Ramps arc frequently u^ f \. instead <»i itairs, from 



\Uv baaebaU prandatand al Lou- 
lalana State I nivarsity, Baton 
Koujjr, la. Wei — , Dreyfoas A Sei- 
ferth, architects; George I". Kite, 

structural enajineca. Thm stand was 
sVa&aned lor future eataaaaVaai al I ha 
ends. Cantilerered eanopi ores 
ticket windows and aaain entrance. 
and the umred faaeas abelse arc 
Inlaiaeliiig details. 






Rail and flag pole anchorage. 

Hail or pole anchorage should be 
of a type which will securely fasten 
the rail or pole to the structure hut 
will not <miM' the concrete to crack 
or accelerate rusting. Large pipe 
embedded directly in the concrete. 
particularly in thin walls, so reduce 
the section of concrete that cracks 
are likely to occur. Sketch V shows 
a short spiral or reinforcing ha re- 
inserted to compensate for the con- 
crete displaced by the pipe. Using 
the small pipe as a dowel rather 
than a large pipe as a socket, also 
reduces the tendency to crack the 

concrete and rust the pipe. Sketches 
B, C and D show the most com- 
mon types of standard fittings for 

railings. Side fastenings such as O through 11. where the\ can 
be used, have the advantage of increasing the effective width of 
stairs or passageway and allow water to quickly drain awa\ from 
the metal. Types E and F are satisfactory for small and medium 
size flag poles as well as railings. Type I ma> be used for anchor- 





ro 




—■= 




1 (1 




i 






.®i *j 


O 


< 




~t>~ 


©J 4 




ing base plates for medium or large flag poles or floodlight poles. 
The details shown of the base itself are not significant. The spe- 
cial stresses caused by wind on medium or large poles must be 
considered in the design of the supporting structure as well as 
the fastenings. 



ground level to the vomitory. Their capacity to handle 

crowds is between that of stairways and level passage- 
ways, but the\ are recommended primarily for greater 
safety rather than for greater capacity. Requirements 
for building exits often limit ramp slopes to not more 
than 1 in LO because of the danger of possible panic from 
lire or other cause, but since this is less in grandstands 
than in buildings, somewhat steeper slopes can be used. 
Ramps as steep as I in 1 have been used, although 
-dopes of J in u to 8 are safer and more commonly used. 
Ramps are longer than stairways of the same height. 
The> are particularly suitable for grandstands where it 
is not necessary to make maximum use of the space 
under the deck and in the \er\ large stadiums of con- 
siderable height. 

Walls and Railings 

Protection at front, back and sides of the grandstand 
and around entrances ma\ consist of solid walls of con- 



crete or of pipe sections anchored to the concrete. Solid 
walls in front of the first row are not more than 3 ft. 
high above the lower tread. A height of 32 in. above the 
lip of the step is quite often used for handrails on 
enclosed stairways. For greater safety, rails and walls 
at ends of stands and around entrances are usually 3 to 
3 1 o ft. above the front edge of the tread. Solid back 
walls give spectators protection against strong winds 
and are therefore frequently made higher. 

Fences and Entrances 

Where admission is to be charged, a fence to enclose 
the field is necessary. \\ bile wire fences have been used 
on some projects, they do not shut off the view of people 
on the outside. .Many of these spectators would prob- 
ably pay admission if a solid fence enclosed the field. 
Those who have paid admissions do not like to know 
that others are able to view the events without payment. 

Attractive fences of concrete, designed and built to 







< oik rctr fenc«*s arc uidel\ 

used to enclose athletic fields. 
They harmonize with the* 
grandstand ami are an ellee- 
I i\e srreen. Hie ticket v* inflow 
and wide evil yale form an 
Integral pari of the feme ami 

entrance detail at Strobel 

Field, Sandusky. Ohio. V 
front x'ivw of I hi*- grandstand 

and cantilever roof is thowii 

Oil |>a^e .10. Harold Parker. 
architect; K. < '.. liVese, engi- 
neer. 




ce« to the playing field mu> be of concrete to match th«- Kruii(Utun«l a* at iht* John huweetl Stadium, < entoo, Ohio 
el officei have been incorporated in the entrance. < barlet E. Firestone, architect and engineer. 



randstand structure, can be used to 
,11 i h< i fi hi i he outside. The concrete ma) be 
in pi ! i in special large imii>. or the usual 

rete masonr) ma) !«■ used. Decorative treatment 
be given to the I md the texture Buited to the 

,n ornamental entrance to the 
ing field is provided. Such an entrance ma) be corn- 
ed withth< enclosure truer and treated as a separate 
cture or ii ma) be an integral pari «»!' the grand- 
tructure. rickel hooih> ma) be incorporated in 
• Mil ran 

lies in entrances, fences or enclosure walls should be 
inged thai a single file of the crowd going in passes 
ckel collector. However, to proi ide quick, unob- 
i, d | exil of the crowd, it should be pos- 

to thro* the gates wide open. The accompan) ing 
itions sho* a hw entrances and fences as ex- 
iles of the suitabilit) of concrete for these structures. 

ruination for Night Play 

hall, softball and football played at ni-ht areat- 

tin_ rowds of spectators, V high level o£ 

nination is required, so distributed that the field and 

i Dies through the air can be seen dearl) from 

Requirements of spectators as well as 

s musl be i onsidered. Tin* minimum illumination 

lependon the game to be played; the class of event, 

is, whether major or minor league, professional oi 

.ml sixe of audience. \> Ihe numbei 
g in, is g the illumination musl be increased as 
irthest-awaj spe< tators have to see from a greater 

Ull 

besl results are secured with modern, efficienl 



tl [lights used in accordance with sound principles i >\ 

lightin ommended b) the National I lectrical 

Manufacturers Vssociation* Engineers tl ighl) fa 

nnli ii wiih i 1 1 «e requirements and experienced in i ln> 
work should h«' engaged to plan the installation 
upa i if Ooodlighl - are placed on jm.Ii- oi i« 
I oi i overed grandstands, all or | • . 1 1 1 • •! the li_-lii - 1 an !>•• 
placed on the roof if this t- designed to i arr) the extra 
load Lighl poles in fronl of the grandstand interfere 
with t h* ■ \ irvs of the spectators Placing them farthei 
oa< k requires i ml v Idit i< >nal lamps and lit i le 
additional power, generall) noi more than .dioui ."> per 
cenl additional. The lamps, however, musl !>«• placed 
higher a> the distance from the field increases. For 
example, the rei i mmended heighl l« n p 20 tt 
from the sidelines of a standard football 1 i • - 1 « I is l"» fl 
and a height of 95 ft. is r< ruled whereth 
1 20 ft. from th • sidelines, with heights in direi t propor- 
tion for intermediate positions I ni[ i the 

i heighl of i I them are • 

\\ I irn the lights are placed at distant it oi lest 

from the sidelines >>\ football fields 5 p l< 
re pjired i le of the h»ld \\ hen pla< ed 75 tt .,r 

morefr >m sidelines, onl) 3 poles are required on ea< h side 

In some of thr newer grandstands suitable basi 
l»in\ ided at th** nppeT edge of the deck oo which t 
are erected for mounting the floodlight* rhus 
lighting i> pro* ided * ithoul obsl n* ting t 1 
spectator, and at the same time the lighting facilit i< 
a il and hai monious pai t of the »1 1 i* 



> ihlottr 
issued l»\ \.tfi<»n.il I 

ith ^i \. -a Vorl HA . 



V) 



^5suu^ (<(f 




Space under the grandstand at A* est Carrollton, Ohio, is used for 
th<- storage of school buses. Simple ornament east in the concrete 
by the use of molds in the forms adds to the attractiveness. The 
ti>ilet fixtures are vented through the eros^-fit tinjr on the flag pole. 
Rial T. Parrish. architect and engineer. 



Public Facilities 

Public toilets should be provided in practically all 
cases. One authority estimates that the following fix- 
tures are required: for each 1,000 men. 1 water close! 
and 6 urinals; for each 1,000 women. 7 water closets. 
in some locations, building codes require public toilets 
and specify minimum requirements. For example, one 
eit\ requires for the women's toilets. | water closet for 
each 800 seats, and for the men's toilets, i water closet 

for each 675 seats, and I initial for each 200 Seats. These 
requirements are lor baseball and other athletic grand- 
stands. For larger stadiums to be used for a variety of 
purposes the same code requires for the women's toilets. 
1 water closel for each 600 seats, and for the men's 
toilets, I water closet for each 750 Beats and 1 urinal 
for each 22.") Beats. The same code requires at least 1 
lavatory in each toilet room. It also makes mandator} 
the installation of drinking fountains, at least I for each 
2,000 spectators. The fountains are not to be placed 
in toilet rooms and are t,, be so located that the hori- 
zontal distance to be traveled h\ an> spectator in reach- 
in- them shall not v\rml |IM) ft. j n || lr \g^g e <r rdlu \_ 

stands several toilet rooms should be provided to make 
them easily accessible. \11 toilet rooms should be well 
lighted and ventilated and designed for eas) cleaning. 



Concessions 

Booths for refreshments and other concessions are 
often the source of extra income at well patronized 
grandstands besides being conveniences appreciated by 
the public. They are often of a temporary nature, espe- 
cially at football grandstands, consisting of wood coun- 
ters placed between columns under the deck. Portable 
equipment furnished by the concessionaire is usually 
used, but electrical outlets and waste sink with drain 
as well as a water supply should be provided. A small 
storage room in back of the booth is sometimes pro- 
vided. In grandstands that are used more frequently, 
such as the professional baseball grandstands, more per- 
manent construction should be provided and sufficient 
space allowed for servicing the vendors of refreshments 
who distribute these throughout the stand. 

Ticket Booths 

Ticket offices or booths are usually placed at or near 
the main entrances. They should be so placed that they 
are convenient but do not interfere with the entry of 
those holding tickets purchased in advance. A booth 
for one ticket cashier may be as small as 3 ft. squan 

Offices and Storage 

Space under the grandstand can be used for offi. 
of the operating management, the athletic departments 
of schools, or for Other purposes. Closed-in storage rooms 
for athletic equipment, janitor'- materials and ground- 
keeping equipment are often desirable. The sizes of these 
looms will, of course, depend on how the\ are to be 
used, but are generally determined by the space remain- 
ing after providing adequately for the more important 
facilities previously disi us» 1 

Press and Broadcasting Accommodations 
Schools and colleges have come to realize the great 

value of favorable publicity and friendh relations with 
the public. Commeiciali/ed sports, such as professional 
baseball and football, have appreciated tin- for a long 
time and make adequate provision for representatives 
of the press and for radio broadcasting. Suitable pro- 
visions f,»r tie- services have been neglected in man> 

instances, or have been added after the main structure 



HoUo* concrete units form the en- 
closure of this ronccssiou noetic under 
the grandstands! Mooseheart, III. It.. 
cast-in-placc concrete lintel I 
simple ami inexpensive decorative 
treatmi at . I he plaques an si 
ston« . 




was erected, sometimes resulting in more or less make- 
shift accommodations out of harmony w ith the rest of 
the structure. Provision for these accommodations 
should be made in the original design, and the construc- 
tion should be permanent and fit into the general scheme. 
The space should be covered and preferably enclosed 
with movable plate glass windows on the front. Double 
glazed windows hinged at the top to swing outward are 
recommended. 

For football grandstands these facilities should be 
centered on the 50-yd. line and are generally at the 
top of the stand. They should be so elevated that the 
reporters' view will not be obstructed b> a standing 
crowd. For baseball grandstands these facilities should 
be located near home plate. If the stand is roofed, the 
press box may be suspended from the roof near its front 
edge, otherwise it should be at the rear. 

The space and equipment for reporters and broad- 
casters will depend upon local conditions such as the 
importance of the contemplated events and the number 
of press representatives and broadcasters expected. 

The minimum facilities should be a continuous desk 
about 18 in. wide with an allowance of 2 lin.ft. per man. 
Where a wire report is being sent, the reporter and his 
telegrapher will need at least 1 lin.ft. of desk as well 
as proper telegraphic connections. Some representatives 
telephone their reports to their offices either dining or 
immediately after the game, so consideration should be 
given to furnishing the necessarv facilities. Telephone 
connections with the players' bench and scoreboard are 
also desirable. Electric lights should be provided and 
some form of heating is desirable. 

The size and equipment of broadcasting booths will 
also vary with the importance of the contest and the 
size of staff. Generally accommodations should be pro- 
vided for 2 engineers with their equipment and the 




announcer with 2 or more assistants. This requires a 
minimum room about 10 ft. long and 8 ft. deep. The 
furnishings should consist of a table across the entire 
front for the announcer and hi3 assistants, another table 
about 3 ft. square for the engineers, and 6 or more 
chairs. Where the broadcasting will be done by only a 
small local station, the personnel may be less and the 
booth proportionately smaller. The booth should be 

soundproofed to prevent interference from Outside noises 




Pteae box seating. This simple arrangement of facilities on stand- 
ard treads and risers can be added to existing structures or used 
on nru stands without i banging the regular construction of the 
seal deck. The table is fastened to the deck with the standard 
seal support attachments. \n enclosure <>r at leasl a roof should 
be provided. 



The press box of architectural concrete is an integral pari 
of the grandstand at Coatesville, l*a. The \*id<- windows 

provide a good view of the playing field and there are few 
seats hai i njz an obsl rueted \ i<-\> . Law rie «K Green, architects 
and engineers. 

and the inside should be acoustically treated. Adequate 

ventilation must be provided. 

One \er> Important item to be considered is the ade- 
quacy and location of electric, telephone and radio lines. 
There should be several electric outlet receptacles for 
power and heal a> well as the electric lights. In addition 
to the outside telephone and telegraph connections, 
there should In- lines to the players 1 bench, scoreboard, 
and other points from which special items of interest 
ma\ be broadcast. The lines should be in lead cables 
in weatherproof conduit. To prevenl interference the 
cables for radio, telephone and power lines should be in 
separate conduits. 

Because ot" variations in equipment and local condi- 
tions officials of tile broadcasting, press, telephone and 

telegraph organizations who are expected to use these 
facilities should be consulted regarding the exact layoul 

and equipment. 

Public Address System 

A public address system is desirable tor announce- 
ments during the progress «>f a game and particularly 
for entertainments in which there is speaking or singing. 
Permanent lines should be installed from the loud 
speakers to convenient outlets near points of int. , 
on the field and in the press box or broadcasting booth. 



23 



STRUCTURAL DETAILS 



Loads 

.. n tli.it tin Iliads ,,| M j r j-id- 
indstand 

!.« 

Framing 

\\ ji « 

■ 

I t«. 



iffen the bent I be seta Lion <>f the mm ind 

i 'Mi' Ls is pi im.ii il\ a question of 

in. nt i.itlirj than oi .in.ils -i- lli« |>ai> 

^h( Mj|<i extend through < >i be hooked if 1 1 < » the columns 

V) though th« st Hint's* ma\ !•< in< reused l>\ usiiif* (ill* I- 
«»r hauni lies at i h< jun< I ure i -i i olumns, girderi and 
struts tli. additional i v|»- nst is not ordinarily justified 

pt * Im i. -ii< li in. rubers ink i m « i .it an • »• tito an 

Ll I i! im I in .ill v t » \ tin & at 

• idinal st i uts, similai i« i 1 1" •-< in i be bt nil 

should l». i 'i • >\ idt .I t< > reduce um^i.i \ i «l column height! 
lit \ 
III. deel tied \n it h t li. i .1 I.. .,mi 

between tin ih< in a«i .i^ a xLi|» 

i Lancet I hi undei 

' I , |H (| ill. 



■ 





• • 4 



— * . . , . 







• 






I'hti^ h**. l«>»m *<*•<■!, N*..iiii4, '»< 



a few stands have been built in which the underside of 
the deck is a plane surface. 

In designing the risers consideration should be given 
to using continuous straight bars in both top and bot- 
tom. This will require slightly more steel than where 
trussed bars are used but the unit steel cost will be 
less, construction will be simplified, and the steel will 
be more effective in reducing cracking due to volume 
change. The splicing should be at the center of span 
for the top bars and at the support for the bottom bars. 

The spacing of columns and bents will depend upon 
local conditions such as total width and length of stand, 
use of space under the stand, location of entrances, 
architectural treatment and minimum practical size of 
members. Generally the spacing is about 16 to 20 ft. 
Some economy may be obtained by making end spans 
slightly shorter or using a short cantilever end span. 

Expansion Joints 

Grandstands should be divided into convenient lengths 

to allow for the movement caused by changes in temper- 
ature and moisture content. The proper location and 
spacing of expansion joints must be determined for each 
job and since there are no fixed rules for this determina- 
tion some general comments will be helpful. Expansion 
joints should be placed where there is the greatest ten- 
dency for the structure to crack, such as where the 
section is reduced at vomitories and other openings. 
These joints are ordinarily spaced about 60 ft. apart. 

Expansion joints must be made so that movement 
in them can easily take place. Joints in which there is 
friction between the moving parts have 
not proved entirely satisfactory and 
are not recommended. 

Completely open joints are prefer- 
able where leakage through the joints 
will not interfere with use of the space 
under the stand. The best location of 
these is between cantilever spans. 1 1 ere 
it is advisable to finish the seat deck 
with small edge beams, the undersides 
of which form a plane surface. This 



construction prevents any water that comes through 
the joint from running back along the underside of the 
seat deck, thus causing discoloration and possibly more 
serious trouble. With these joints, the deck can be made 
watertight either when originally built or at a later 
time by fastening a trough tightly against the edge 
beams either by bolts cast in the concrete or by expan- 
sion bolts. These troughs should be connected at the 
bottom to a drainage system. To protect the drainage 
system from debris, a small catch basin type of fixture 
should be provided at the bottom of the trough. These 
fixtures should have handholes so that they can be 
cleaned easily. 

Probably the most common method of making an 
expansion joint watertight is to provide a crimped cop- 
per dam across the joint with an elastic material above 
and sometimes below it. In constructing such joints, 
particularly where the joint is sloped as in seat decks, 
it is important that the crimped portion not be filled 
or blocked by concrete or joint filler. With this space 
open, any water which passes the joint filler will be 
caught by the dam which will act as a trough to dis- 
charge the water at the bottom. However, if this trough 
is blocked by concrete or joint tiller, a considerable 
head of water may develop above the stoppage and 
leaks occur. 

Waterstops or dams arc usually made of 16 oz. copper. 
One-half-inch diameter holes at 8-in. centers punched 
near the edges of the strip will aid in securely anchoring 
it in the concrete. The dam must be so placed thai the 
concrete will embed it securelv. 



'MW|r 





These construction views show some 
of the unusual reinforced concrete 
framing of the 100,(MM)-seat stadium 
at Buenos Aires, Argentina. Jose Asian 
and Hector Ezcurra, engineers. 



25 




Western State Teachers College at Kalamazoo, Mich., owns this attractive concrete grandstand. The horizontal rustica- 
tion strips add interest to the surfaces and provide locations for hidden construction joints. Note location of ticket windows 
at entrances. A smaller stand is on embankment on opposite side of field. Osborn Engineering Co., architect and engineer. 



Where the waterstop is horizontal or sloped, it must 
be protected on the top by a joint filler*. It is desirable 
to locate horizontal joints where the traffic is light, that 
is. locating them in aisles is not as <iood as placing them 
at the edge of the aisles or under the seats. In the latter 
case the continuity of the scats also must he broken. 

In designing and locating expansion joints considera- 
tion must he given to the possibility of the heels on 
women's shoes becoming caught in open or partly filled 
joints. Consequently the width of joint should be as 
small as construction practice will permit. Where con- 



siderable traffic will occur over a joint, it may be desir- 
able to install a sliding metal plate over the joint. 
Joints in enclosing walls should be made as in ordinary 
walls of similar materials. Architectural concrete walK 
should have control joints at 15 to 25-ft. intervals in 
addition to expansion joints through entire structure**. 
List of manufacturers will he furnished in United States and 
Canada upon request to the Portland Cement Association 
"""Additional information is contained in Expansion Joints in ( <>n- 
rrctr Buildings and Control Joints published 1>\ Poi llmnl ( < mmt 
Vssociation and availahle free in United States and Canada 
upon request. 




Joint with Gutter. 

Mastic — v /—Preformed filler 



To drainage 
system ■ 



V 



^Edge 
beam- 



!>>>• 



ra p_y\»^K_R uS t resistant 
gutter 



,Ff 



WITH GUTTER. 



L- 



Ifeoi. copper dam 



WITH DiM 

Section a-a 



OPEN 



Expansion joints in deck. I 1 k n finished with a 

email edge beam on each aide of the expansion joint The join! 

made watertight l»v use of s gutter or a ooppei dam with 

ti boa ifl rmwntinl with Lb 

bould be provided along U - ■ ■ una for the 

Open i<'int or the joint with gutter. 



Tooled joint filled 
with mastic-^ 



r 



Pitch j' in 2-0" away from joint 



V«- 






Tooled joint filled 
with mastic -^ 



" - • 7 " : /ft - 



~ 1 



Tooled joint filled 
with mastic-* 



Wood 

strip 




Trowel finish and 
cover with mastic- 

CONTIUCTION JOINTS 



Mastic 




Trowel finish and 
cover with mastic - 



Mastic 




|"$* 18"dowels- 
24"o.c -oreased 

end m sleeve 



Expansion Joints 



\ ipansaon and contraetion joints in stab or do ck on ground. 
Both expansiao and contraction jointi must !"■ detsiled to I** 

; tin two sides in 1 in* Th<* <*\pansion joints 



.-. 



Construction Joints 

Since the amount of concrete between expansion joints 
is frequently more than can be placed in one day, con- 
struction joints will often be necessary. The location 
and construction of these joints, particularly in the deck, 
are of considerable important e 

There are two procedures commonh used in schedul- 
ing the pla< in- of concrete. Each system has its advan- 
tages and advocates. In both systems the footings and 

columns are placed up to the underside of the sloping 

girders but from there on the order of placing is differ- 
ent. In the first system the entire heighl of thr deck 
and its supporting girders are placed in one da> with 
the construction joints parallel to the bents. These con- 
struction joints are usually placed over the center of 

the gird< I although the) are sometimes made near tlie 
Center ot" span between bents. In either case, a groove 

should be made at the joint in the tread and this 

groo> e later filled w itb plastic material. 
In tin second s\stem all the girders between two 

expansion joints arc placed before an> ol" the deck is 

, ast. The deck is then placed in sections thr lull length 
between expansion joints, making an) oecessar} con- 
struction .joint in a riser. One of the advantages of this 
system is thai (he construction joint can be made in 
an> riser and thus the amount of concrete placed at 
one time can be varied to suit an\ emergency, whereas 
in the firsi system it is important that all the concrete 
in ;i predetermined section be placed continuously. I he 
construction joint in a riser should preferably be made 
at the underside of the tread. Thejoinl should be made 
straighl b\ use of a l-in. strip temporarily tacked to 
the face Form the surface swepl with s stiff broom or 
otherwise treated to roughen it and remove an) laitance 
and then Boaked just prior to placing the next concrete*. 



Watertight Decks 

Decks should be watertight, at least between expan- 
sion joint>. even though it is not planned to use the 
space under the stand. This may be assured b\ atten- 
tion to a few details of design and construction. The 

entire deck should ha\ e a definite stupe toward the front 

so that it will drain rapidly. To obtain this effect, each 
tread should be sloped about I in. toward the front. 

The water from the deck should be collected at the 
bottom and discharged into a suitable drainage system. 

SimpK discharging the water unto the field is not satis- 
factory except in small structures with onl) s fen rows 
of seats. In large structures it is advisable to rolled 
tin water .ii intermediate points in the deck height so 
th.it ii ma) be removed more quickl) and excessive 
amounts of water will not How over the lower treads. 
\x an average, I sipin. ot drain pipe should be po>\ ided 
foi ea< h 300 Bq ft of deck. 

To reduce the amount of watei Rowing ovei expansion 
and construction joints, the treads are >oriie times pit< hed 
awa) from the joints. This ma\ !»•• done h\ t ] - in 
increase in thr thickness of the tread made gradual!) 
over i distance of 2 01 3 ft on each sidr ol the joint. 

With good qualit) concrete and reasonable care in 
n details and construe i i< >n. the da k can be made 
watertight so tli.it fh< space beneath ma) be u 
without othei protection. However, in .« numbei of 
instances onl) .j portion of the space h.i> been used 
th.it a standard type of roof has been installed ovei the 
rooms to reduce the ceiling heighl oi as protet tion from 
I he iiih-ih l< >sed u ea al 



Additional mfoi mat ion ' i ontaim d ii 

: ilinfa «l \>s \'->i lland < • i i 

1 1 1 . - 1 in t r 1 1 1 . . I S la t 
< .in.i i l.i 




11m ramhfiri at Nyaek* N. ^ . mi l>iiilt on an »■■■■■ it, witft • fm I • acnaul 

winter construction, a b«rt«d aw J osuw ainf ..,-. nctia md mmd m I .... roller* 

Henri G Emerj and George \. Scholieltl. <» an hit., t~: llarn*> Polhen 



Structures on Embankment 

Where the topography is such that the seats can be 
built on an embankment, the construction costs may 
be reduced. However, some of the saving in cost of the 
seating structure is offset by loss of the usable space 
under the seats. Except for very small structures or for 
those adjacent to existing gymnasiums or similar build- 
ings, space must be provided under the seats or in 
adjacent buildings for the facilities previously discussed. 

There is considerable variation in the general types 
of grandstands built upon embankments. One type is 
practically the regular framed structure, simply having 
short columns supported on the embankment, The onl\ 



saving with this type is in the shorter columns and less 
bracing. At the other extreme is the solid slab cast on 
the plane surfaced embankment. Between these two 
types are many variations, the choice depending on 
local conditions such as type of soil, climate, pitch of 
seats, available equipment, and relative cost of ma- 
terials and labor. An intermediate type which has been 
used when the soil is quite firm consists of the concrete 
deck cast on the soil, which has been cut in the form of 
steps parallel to the top surface of the stand. 

The greatest economy will be obtained by designing 
these structures simply as slabs supported directly on 
the ground. However, where built upon a poorly con- 



Sea*s on each riser — r- 



Trowel finish and 
'cover with mastic-^. 







*— — H 



•-¥ 



j-.r r 



Pitch i* per ft, 






• 



. I •./ ^ 

~ r -_^S— — -- -"— — Trow «' finish and 
1 ".-.'<: *"~\ cover with mastic 



Grade 
line-i 

m 



Gravel 
trench - 

Concrete pipe drain. 

May be omitted if at ^^ j 

top of embankment rj ' 



Expansion joint 







d use fe" wall 

e*tenc 

joints a* 



drai 






ropor 

'.'WALL 



' M- 1 1 date* i.. i ,,.,,„,. i:.,mI ..„ nbnkmmt I ><*nl*cheme» m *n* 1t m «. •» n 



"fi <ii i-rnhnnl 



^ 




The natural site permitted this grandstand at Anniston, Ma., to he huilt on an einhankment. Kntranee is from the top. 
Note the curved hack which gives larger percentage of seats opposite the centerline. A small, well located press ho\ i> 
provided. Side walls are appropriately low for the hillside location. R. L. Kenan and Associates, engineers. 



solidated embankment, the structure may have to be 
built on walls or columns extending to good founda- 
tions, thus neglecting the supporting power of the soil 
under the seats and using it only to save the cost of 
form work. 

Regardless of the type of structure used, it is im- 
portant to reduce to a minimum the water entering the 
embankment. Surface water should be intercepted and 
drained away before reaching the structure. L nless the 
top of the stand is at the top of the embankment, a 
cutoff wall and drain tile should be provided at the 
top of the structure. Drains should be placed at the 
bottom of the slope also. 



Roofs 

In general, roofs are not provided on grandstands 
used primarily for football and track but are provided 
over at least a portion of stands used for horse races 
and professional baseball. 

In designing roofs c\er\ effort should be mad*' to 
eliminate or reduce to a minimum the interference to 
spectators" \ iew caused b\ supporting members. Canti- 
levering all or part of the roof removes or reduces this 
interference. The sweeping lines of reinforced concrete 
cantilever roofs add to rather than detract from the 
appearance of the entire structure. Also, such roofs are 
I i resale and do not require periodic painting. 



The grandstand at Fraser Field, Lynn, Mass., is placed so 
that entrance at top of stand is made hy short ramps from 
street level. A wide circulating aisle is provided in hack of 
seats. The cantilevered concrete roof covers a large part 
of the stand. Note elevated press box under roof. C. R. B. 
Harding, engineer. 




CONSTRUCTION 



Quality Concrete 

In grandstands a very large surface area is exposed 
to the destructive forces of weathering. Therefore, not 
only 13 correct design essential, but good quality con- 
crete work is necessary to produce a structure that will 
successfully resist the elements and continue indefi- 
nitely to present a pleasing appearance. Specifications 
for the work should be carefully prepared and super- 
vision of the construction should be competent to see 
that the specifications are obsen ed. 

The technique of concrete making has been developed 
to such a degree that structures can now be built with 
assurance they will give long life service with a mini- 
mum of maintenance. The qualit> of concrete is de- 
pendent on the characteristics and proportions of the 
materials, and on the care used in placing and curing. 

All materials should comply with the standards of 
the American Societ) for Testing .Materials. 

lh«' resistance of concrete to weathering and its 
water-tightness, strength and other qualities are largeK 
'Niched b> the proportion of water to cement*. For 
grandstands in the northern latitudes of the I nited 
Stair, ii is recommended that the water content does 
not exceed 6 gal. of water per sack of portland cement. 
In the southern state- it ma) be increased to 7 gal. per 

sack. I he8e amounts include an\ free surface moisture 



introduced with the aggregates, for which a correction 
must be made. 

The proportions will depend on the grading of the 
materials, method of placing and the shape of the 
section to be placed. It is important that the concrete 
mixture be of a plastic consistency that can be placed 
easily, but will not allow segregation of the materials 
and excess water to accumulate in the corners and on 
the top surfaces. Such segregation often results in 
stone pockets, and edges and top surfaces that have 
poor resistance to weather. 

.Methods of placing concrete should be chosen that 
will maintain uniformity in the mixture and produce 
a completed structure of uniformly high quality. In 
some cases concrete has been distributed b\ chutes 
from a central tower. When necessary to carry concrete 
over long distances there is a tendency to use chutes 
on too flat an angle (less than 1 vertieafin 3 horizontal) 
to avoid an excessh «•!> high tower. This practice should 
be discouraged as it requires a \er\ wet or "sloppy" 
concrete and results in almost certain segregation of 
the materials and poor weather-resistance in the fin- 
ished structure. 



'Additional information is contained in Design and Control o/ 
Concrete Mixture* published h> Portland Cement tasoriatkm 
and available free in ( nited States and Canada upon request 



A feature of the grandstand at Strobe) Field, Sanduaky, 
Ohio, is the concrete cantilever roof. .Note the long dug- 
outs, enelosed press hox and location of aisles at one Bide 
of vomitories. Harold Parker, architect; R. < Reese, engi- 
neer. 





Placing concrete in the seat deck. Concrete is plated from 
a bucket handled by a crane. This permits direct placing at the 
desired location in the forms without chutes, an important step 
in the prevention of segregation of the ingredients and in pro- 
ducing uniform concrete. The forming shown in sketch below 
is being used with loose planks on supports tacked to riser forms. 



J Mfe 




Men on upper plank are spading and rodding concrete into place. 
The fourth tread is being screeded to proper pitch while second 
tread is being troweled lightly. Treads were Inter given a light 
brooming. The supports and planks provide a good working plat- 
form with a minimum of interference in the finishing operations, 

therein speeding up the work and improving the finish. 



Most engineers prefer that the concrete be carried 
in buggies or in bottom dump buckets handled by 
cranes to spot the bucket in the exact position for de- 
posit of the concrete. When buggies are used, they are 
pushed over runways and short lengths of chutes are 
used from the runway to the forms. Chutes should dis- 
charge the concrete into hoppers and not directly into 
the forms. Both buggies and buckets have the advan- 
tage of keeping the concrete in small batches in which 
there is less tendency for segregation before it arrives 
at the point of deposit in the forms. The smaller batches 
can be placed in the forms in the desired locations so 
that little movement is necessary after the concrete is 




Deck forming. This sketch shows one of the best of the man} 
methods of forming the underside of the seat deck and the risers. 
The deck forming is simple to erect and ^trip so that several 
reuses can be obtained. It can be used with \arious other types 
of front riser forms including that shown to the right. The large 
stringers permit a wide spacing of T-shoivs. The special form tie 
also serves as a means of attaching the seat supports, the bolts 
in the front being replaced by permanent bolts through the seat 
support. Beveling the front riser form as shown provides a small 
tillrt and makes Brushing easier than beveling the opposite way. 



deposited. Whate\er methods of transporting and 
placing are used every precaution should br taken to 
maintain the concrete in a uniformly plastic mixture. 
When concrete has been placed in the forms it should 
be thoroughly puddled or vibrated to compact it, to 
thoroughly embed all reinforcing steel and fixtures and 
to provide smooth surfaces along the forms. The order 
of placing concrete will depend on the design and 
personal preference as discussed on page 27. Particular 
attention should be given to placing concrete in the 
deck slab as it will be exposed to the most severe 
conditions. Placing in the deck is started on the lower 
tread and riser, from one end to the other of the 
section. Concrete is then placed in the second tread 
and riser beginning at the same end of the section as 
before. This procedure is carried on continuously from 
bottom to top of the section. The rate of placing 




yw^is 







This form assembly i> made in movable units with I2-ft. plank 
stringers and ri>«T forms. The units arc fastened together with 
the scabs marked F. The onits must he carefully anchored in 

place. Note the 2x4 struts at the lower end of each stringer and 
the tie wires to the seat support holts. The tops of the Bl ringers 
are supported on and tied to the forming for the underside of 
the deck. V plywood facing with open backing is frequent 1> used 
in place of the kerfed plank riser form shown. 



31 



Texture was produced 
on the concrete walls of 
the grandstand at Iola, 
Kan., by accentuated 
joints between form 
boards. Incised letter- 
ing was casl above the 
main entrance. Gerald 
Griffin, architect. 




should be fast enough 

to avoid the formation 
of joints between suc- 
3 i v e steps but 
should be slow enough 
so that the concrete 
can be thoroughly 
puddled into the forms 
and around the rein- 
forcing steel. 

Reinforcement should be carefully placed and firmly 
held in position during placing of the concrete. It is 
especially important to keep the reinforcement away 
from exposed surfaces. A point where very careful 
placing is necessary is at expansion joints. Where 
copper dams and premolded filler are used in the joint, 
care is required to maintain proper position of the dam 
and filler and to embed the wings of the dam thoroughly 
in dense concrete. The concrete should be carefully 
tamped into place in these locations. No concrete or 
mortar should be allowed to flow into the joint as this 
would interfere with its operation. 

Proper curing is one of the most economical means of 
improving the quality of concrete. By proper curing 
is meant the provision of conditions favorable to harden- 
ing of the concrete, namely: (1) temperatures above 
50 deg. F. and (2) prevention of too rapid drying of the 
concrete. Leaving the forms in place is very helpful in 
retaining moisture in the concrete. All exposed surfaces 
should be kept continuously moist for at least 5 days, 
except that for high early strength portland cement 
concrete moist curing may be reduced to 2 days. In 
cold weather construction, necessary precautions 
should be taken to protect the new concrete from low 
temperatures*. 

Finish 

Tie wires passing through the concrete should not 
be permitted in grandstand construction. Form ties 
should be of a type that is entirely removed from the 
concrete or leaves no metal closer than 1J/2 m - to the 
exposed surface. Holes left by ties should be filled solid 
with mortar before other finishing or cleaning opera- 
tions. 

With good form construction and careful placement 



of the concrete, attractive surfaces can be obtained 
which require no other treatment than knocking off 
an occasional small fin and suitable cleaning. Plywood 
and wood-fiber board are widely used as sheathing or 
lining for forms to produce pleasingly smooth surfaces. 
Since these materials are available in large sheets, 
there is a minimum of joint markings from the forms 
and these can be fitted into the architectural design or 
can be practically eliminated if desired. A wide variety 
of rougher textures can be produced by using lumber 
of different kinds, sizes and finishes*. 

Walkway surfaces which include ramps and stairs 
should be given a nonslip finish. One method of doing 
this is by floating and troweling the surface, then 
brooming it. A fiber or bristle broom can be used 
depending on the texture of surface desired. If the 
treads of the seat deck are to be broomed, this should 
be done across the width of tread as broom marks 
parallel to the length may interfere with quick drainage 
from the treads. Care must be taken to maintain the 
specified slope from back to front of these treads for 
good drainage. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The same details have been used so frequently on 
more than one grandstand or by more than one designer 
that it is impossible to know who is responsible for 
their original use. The details shown have been taken, 
with some modifications, from drawings kindly fur- 
nished by many architects and engineers, to whom the 
Portland Cement Association expresses appreciation. 

* Additional information is contained in ( 'oncretinQ in Cold Weather 
and Forms for Arch it* rhmiH orient* published 1>> Portland Cement 
Association and free in United Slates and Canada upon request. 



32 



Printed in I - \ 



S-30— i:»M -12-40